HED Manual – 900 Design, Quality Control and Social Impact Management

900 Design, Quality Control and Social Impact Management
901 Design
901.1 This section will provide the general design approach and methodologies to be followed in the design of coastal infrastructure. The specific requirements and design particulars of each project/work needs to be assessed at the site level on a case to case basis and the steps outlined in this chapter is to be used as a guideline only.

902 Codes and Practices Followed in Coastal Engineering
902.1 The list of codes and practices to be followed in the design of harbour and coastal engineering structures is appended to this document [Appendix XXXX]. The Indian standard codes of practice and other codes of practice, including international codes of practices should be used judiciously.

903 General Suggestions for Construction Works in Kerala Coast
903.1 For all the reinforced concrete constructions, design mix of Grade M30 or higher strength with water cement ratio not more than 0.45 shall be used. In the case of plain concrete, M10 Grade or higher should be used.
903.2 For proper corrosion control, necessary provisions should be given to have corrosion free marine grade fixtures and components. Further, care should be taken in the execution of works to ensure proper cover to the reinforcements etc.
903.3 A check list of features, factors and practices to be used in the design for proper corrosion control in Kerala Coast is appended with this document [Appendix XXXX].

904 Adoption of New Technologies and Construction Materials
904.1 As many of the construction methods adopted in the coastal engineering field are facing many challenges from the environmental impact and other points of view, and as new technologies are continuously emerging in this field, improving up on the previous methodologies, HED should be open to the new technologies. As a norm, about 5% of budget provision for the projects may be utilised to try the new technologies as pilot projects and the same may be subjected to periodic monitoring and technical assessment for the suitability to adopt in large scale. Some examples of the new technologies in coastal engineering are geo-synthetics and reinforced earth, gabions, Geo-Container systems and geo tubes, floating / sunken breakwaters etc

905 Comprehensive Marine Fishing Policy of India and FAO Guidelines
905.1 Section 8.0 of the Comprehensive Marine Fishing Policy of India, dealing with the infrastructure development for marine fisheries, says that “Development of infrastructure for marine fisheries is of vital importance and should have an integrated approach. The facilities would inter alia include jetties, landing centres, provision for fuel, water, ice, repairs to vessels and gear. The concept of hygienic post-harvest handling of fish would also be woven into the project.” The policies in this direction would be as follows:

905.2 A master plan for the development of infrastructure for the next ten years would be drawn up. Section 3.13 of the Comprehensive Marine Fishing Policy of India says that the principle of Code of Conduct for Responsible Fishing Operations would be incorporated into every component activity.

905.3 FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries can be used as a guiding principle for the formulation of harbour projects. With regard to harbours and landing places for fishing vessels, Article 6.17 of the code sets out that States should ensure that fishing facilities and equipment as well as all fishing activities allow for safe, healthy and fair working and living conditions and meet internationally agreed standards adopted by relevant international organizations. More specifically, Article 8.9 addresses harbours and landing places for fishing vessels.

906 FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries:
906.1 The first in the series of FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries(FAO, 1996) refers to fishing operations and in Section 8, states that, in general, competent authorities should adopt acceptable standards and follow guidelines for the design, construction, maintenance and management of harbours and landing places for fishing vessels (reference 8.9 of the Code) to ensure,
• Safe havens for fishing vessels
• Freshwater supplies are available;
• Provision of adequate sanitation arrangements;
• Waste disposal systems (including for oil and oily water) are provided
• There would be no pollution from external sources (non-fisheries activities)
• There would not be any pollution arising from fisheries activities
• Provision of adequate servicing facilities for vessels, vendors and buyers
• Maintenance programmes include the monitoring of the effects of operations conducted at the facility on the environment
• Compliance with relevant conventions concerning pollution of the aquatic environment
• Integration with other users as in the case of a non-exclusive facility for the fishing industry; and
• Arrangements are made to combat the effects of erosion and siltation.

906.2 Coastal Fisheries Harbour Characteristics: The characteristics of the Coastal harbours as per the FAO guidelines are detailed below:

Location of fishing grounds Near coastal, steaming distance up to 6 hours.

Typical fishing trip Anywhere from 1 to 3 days.
Type of vessels handled Large motorized canoes and vessels up to 10 tonnes in weight. Fishing gear usually mini seine, pole and line, long line, trawl nets and gillnets.
Type of landed products A mixture of low-volume high-value and high-volume low-value.
Typical shore processing High value – gutting, icing and boxing for onward sale.
Low value – drying and smoking.
Minimum water depth required At least 2.50 metres below Lowest Astronomical Tide level
Breakwater protection Generally required unless port is inside a river estuary but breakwaters on beaches are reactive and unsustainable
Auction – sorting hall A sorting hall is required in all cases for icing and boxing.
An auction hall is required if fish is auctioned locally as well.
Utilities Mains power and water preferable. Gen sets only suitable in some cases. Boreholes and seawater systems acceptable
Ice production Of primary importance. Should only be mains powered otherwise delivered from nearest supplier.
Cold storage Cold storage required. Chilled storage on ice is acceptable (3oC) if fish is moved to a proper cold storage elsewhere.
Refueling Medium-sized installation (up to 100 tonnes in weight) is the most suitable. Bowser service also acceptable.
Dry docking – slipways Slipway to handle vessels up to 100 tonnes in weight normally enough
Transport links The success or failure of the port depends on good, all weather road access. Road should already exist
Workshops Proper engine and timber hull workshops required in loco. Steel or GRP hulls may need extra workshop area
Net repair areas Required in all cases. A minimum of 1 000 m2 should be set aside. Area should drain surface water away
Fishermen’s/seamen’s facilities A fishermen’s cooperative with full facilities is highly desirable to enable all Stakeholders to participate in the fishing, marketing and procurement activities. Adequate toilet and canteen facilities to be provided
Open storage and parking Enough area should be set aside for parking to enable better connection with markets and for dry boat storage in areas where monsoons are active
Ancillary services Port may also act as base for coastguard and fishery protection vessels
Hinterland A resident fishing village or town community nearby is desirable

906.3 Offshore Fisheries Harbour Characteristics: Offshore fisheries usually involve both fishermen and non-fisheries-related business interests who invest in vessel fleets. Fishing trips extend to the limit of the extended economic zone offshore and last anywhere up to four weeks. The vessel sizes are usually in the 20 to 40 meter range and the vessels generally need proper port facilities. The characteristics of the Coastal harbours as per the FAO guidelines are detailed below:
Location of fishing grounds Offshore and far coastal, steaming distance up to 1 week.
Typical fishing trip Anywhere from 2 to 4 weeks.
Type of vessels handled Large motorized canoes, purse seiners and trawlers. Vessels up to 100 tonnes in weight. Fishing gear purse seine and trawl nets.
Type of landed products Mainly iced but also frozen pelagic, shrimps and other high-value species
Typical shore processing Canneries, fishmeal, salting, drying and smoking.
Minimum water depth required At least 5.0 meters below Lowest Astronomical Tide level.
Breakwater protection Generally required unless port is inside a river estuary but breakwaters on beaches are reactive and unsustainable.
Auction – sorting hall A sorting hall and auction area is required in all cases.
Utilities Mains power only and town supplied water. Boreholes and seawater systems acceptable in areas of low rainfall
Ice production Of primary importance. Should only be mains powered otherwise delivered from nearest supplier.
Cold storage Cold storage required for buffer stocks. Chilled storage on ice (3oC) is acceptable in some cases.
Refueling Large sized installation (up to 1 000 tonnes in weight) is the most suitable. Bowser service also acceptable in some cases.
Dry docking – slipways Slipway to handle vessels up to 500 tonnes in weight normally required
Transport links The port is only feasible if road already exists.
Workshops Proper engine and hull workshops required in loco.
Steel or GRP hulls may need extra workshop area.
Net repair areas Required in all cases. A minimum of 1 000 m2 required. Area should drain surface water away and be part covered.
Fishermen’s/seamen’s facilities A cooperative with full facilities (banking and wholesale supplies) is required. Full toilet and shower facilities as well as canteen services must be included.
Open storage and parking Enough area should be set aside for parking and storage of seasonal fishing gear, as well as for dry boat storage in areas where monsoons are active.
Ancillary services Port may also act as base for coastguard, SAR centre, oil spill combat and fishery protection vessels
Hinterland A town community nearby is desirable with full facilities, including hotels, hospitals, banking, shipping agents

907 Planning of Fishing Harbours General Guidelines
907.1 The following components to be provided.
1. Tranquil Harbour basin with minimum draft 5.00 to 6.00 m below CD can be located inside estuaries or artificial basins protected by breakwaters. For artisanal harbours, the minimum draft can be adopted as 3.00 m below CD.
2. Wharves catering to smaller as well as large mechanised vessels for landing of the fish catch, either manually or by automated container/box handling machines.
3. Fish Cleaning/Sorting/Auctioning/Packing/Loading facilities
4. Berthing/Mooring jetties, can be given as multi-tier, with the upper floors used for storage, harbour automation and other utilities.
5. Outfitting/bunkering facilities for large and small mechanised vessels
6. Parking area/covered loading area, preferably impervious / concrete paved
7. Internal roads
8. Facilities for reefer container cleaning/stacking/handling
9. Repairs facility for craft and gear
10. Refrigerated storage facilities
11. Amenities for harbour workers Toilets/rest rooms/shops/rest etc.
12. At least 1000m water front required for construction of landing & berthing facilities. In the case of artisanal harbours, at least 600m waterfront is required.
13. 50-100 acres of land desirable with proper compound walls and enclosures. Fish handling area should be separated from the general harbour compound to ensure hygienic post-harvest operations. For artisanal harbours, the desirable extend of land is 30 to 40 Acres
14. Water supply 7.00lakh lpd and for artisanal harbours, 3.00lakh lpd
15. Electricity min 500KVA
16. Facilities for customs in the case of harbours catering to offshore fishing vessels
17. Drainage & sewage treatment
18. General ground level shall be at least 2m above the high water level, so that easy drainage of storm water happens and water logging is avoided.
19. Fully automated fish handling facility
20. E-auctioning of fish
21. Food safety laboratory
22. Rescue and emergency medical care facility
23. Surveillance cameras and security systems

908 There may be harbours in which different types of vessels land the fish in the same harbour, in such cases, the facilities are to be decided judiciously accordingly to utility.

909 HACCP Norms
909.1 The system is based on the recognition that microbiological hazards exist at various points, but measures can be taken to control these hazards. The anticipation of hazards and the identification of control points are therefore key elements of HACCP. The system offers a rational and logical approach to control food hazards and avoid the many weaknesses inherent in the inspectional approach.
909.2 Harbour designs should be such that HACCP Norms and monitoring controls can be easily achieved and effected.

Port components/Planning/Traffic Studies/Basin/Draft/types of Cargo and dedicated berths/containers/Transit Shed/Warehouse/Passenger Terminals/Handling Equipment

910 Site Selection – Fishing Harbours
910.1 The following data should be checked and assessed proper while selecting a site for fishing harbour in the state.
1. General Hydrographic, Topographic and Geotechnical aspects.
a. The hydrographical particulars of the area should be such that enough depth at the entrance to the harbour is achieved with minimum length of breakwaters. For this, the continental slope as well as breach cross sections and beach profile should be assessed.
b. With the topographical details of the regions, the proximity to highways, railway and other commercial centers should be assessed. The required approach roads to the harbour as well as to the breakwaters (for construction), natural ground levels of the area etc should be checked.
c. The sub-soil profile of the harbour area should be such that (1) Dredging of the sea bed to the required depths should be possible (avoid heavy rock blasting etc), (2) The settlements of breakwaters and other structures are not excessive and can be controlled economically and (3) The harbour structures can be founded safely without causing large costs for foundations.
2. Sediment movements, wave climate
a. The sediment load and movements due to currents and waves in the region should be such that excessive capital as well as maintenance dredging is avoided.
b. The shoreline variations in the region and the anticipated shoreline changes due to the construction of harbour should be checked to ensure loss of property and other adverse effects do not happen to the coastal community.
3. HED master plan and the government’s current plan for fishery infrastructure
a. Care should be taken to ensure the anticipated development plans comply with the government’s and the departments master plans.
4. Probable Fishing Zone reports in the past / consolidated studies on this
a. Probable Fishing Zones from remote sensing data are published routinely by INCOIS and other agencies. Persistent occurrence of significant quantities of fish catch in the region calls for better infrastructure facilities to harvest the resources.
5. Fishing activities and proximity to Fishing villages, Fishing methods
a. The design aspects and factors of many of the component structures in the harbour will depend up on the fishing activities of the region.
6. Nearby Harbours, Fish Landing Centers and Distance, Construction Materials, Quarry
a. The construction materials and other resource potential in the region should also be assessed to arrive at the right kind of designs and materials for construction
7. Necessity of refuge Harbours

911 Design of components / Fishing Harbour General Design data requirements-
911.1 The main design data required are summarized as follows:
1. Hydraulic Investigations
a) Wave data/height/characteristics period etc. – For the design of breakwater alignment, breakwater sections etc.
b) Tide – For fixing the Chart Datum, the core level of breakwaters, the levels of wharf and other waterfront structures etc
c) Current – For assessing the sediment movements and for ensuring vessel maneuverability.
d) Sediment transports – For assessing the dredging requirements, anticipated shoreline changes etc.
e) River discharge in case of estuaries – For assessing the dredging and sedimentation properties
f) River cross sections – For assessing the dredging and sedimentation properties
g) Tidal prism– For assessing the dredging and sedimentation properties
h) Topography survey – For determining better layout of component structures, ground level etc of the harbour
i) Hydrographic survey Pre-monsoon, Post monsoon – For model studies
j) Bed samples (grain size distribution and characteristics) – For assessing littoral transport and sediment movements.

2. Geo Technical Data
a) Subsoil Boring – Along the alignment of breakwaters and for the foundation of main structures such as wharfs etc
b) Jet probing – To assess the presence of rocky strata in the seabed in the basin.
c) Sonar echo soundings– To assess the depth of seabed as well as the subsoil profile underneath.
d) Soil classification – To assess the foundation requirements, consolidation and other settlements of breakwaters and other structures, sediment movement etc.
e) Shear strength, angle of friction, compressibility etc. To assess the foundation requirements, consolidation and other settlements of breakwaters and other structures,

3. Usage Characteristics – For determining the design details such as landing, berthing, outfitting, bunkering, repair lengths of the waterfront structures, auction hall etc
a) Fleet Composition – Vessel Size and Type
b) Design Fleet Size.
c) Catch Composition.

912 Design of Harbours – Harbor Basin, Depth and Entrance Channel
911.2 The depth of entrance channel and the dredged basin is governed by the draft of the largest vessel anticipated to use the harbour with sufficient the keel clearance. Harbor basin and the approach channel dredged to –3.5m is found satisfactory in the case of artisanal harbours where was a dredged depth of 4 to 6m may be required for large mechanized vessels. The general draft requirements are provided in Section 905.
911.3 The entrance to the harbour from the sea side should be located outside of the wave breaking zone. In Kerala coast, this is often beyond 3.5m depth from CD. The dredged width of approach channel shall not be less than 60m inside the basin. In the case of breakwaters as training works or overlapping of breakwaters, the desirable clear distance between breakwaters at the entrance may be 2.5 to 3 times the width of approach channel.
911.4 The waterfront land in a harbour should be optimized considering the fishing fleet, facilities to be provided, future scope for development etc.

913 Breakwater Alignment
913.1 Breakwater length and alignment are determined by conducting Physical and / or Mathematical Modeling. The modeling and other desk top studies are conducted with two main factors in consideration:
1. Tranquility in the basin for the required vessel operations and fish landing.
2. Siltation studies to ensure the maintenance dredging will be a minimum.

913.2 More on model studies may be referred from section 13 of this manual

914 Design of Breakwater Sections
914.1 Breakwater sections are designed taking in to consideration the following:
a) Type of breakwaters – Rubble Mound, Wall Type, Floating
b) Armour Units – natural stones, concrete blocks

911 Rubble Mound Breakwater (Structure):
911.1 A consist of interior graded layers of stone and an outer armour layer. Armour layer may be of stone or specially shaped concrete units. It has the following advantages:
• Adaptable to a wide range of water depths, suitable on nearly all foundations
• Layering provides better economy (large stones are more expensive) and the structure does not typically fail catastrophically (i.e. protection continues to be provided after damage and repairs may be made after the storm passes).
• Readily repaired.
• Armor units are large enough to resist wave attack, but allow high wave energy transmission (hence the layering to reduce transmission). Graded layers below the armor layer absorb wave energy and prevent the finer soil in the foundation from being undermined.
• Sloped structure produces less reflected wave action than the wall type.
• Require larger amounts of material than most other types

912 Wall-Type Breakwaters:
912.1 It typically consist of caissons (a concrete or steel shell filled with sand or gravel) sitting on a gravel base (also known as vertical wall breakwater). Exposed faces are vertical or slightly inclined (wall-type)
• Sheet-pile walls and sheet-pile cells of various shapes are in common use.
• Reflection of energy and scour at the toe of the structure are important considerations for all vertical structures.
• When foundation conditions are suitable, steel sheet piles may be used to form a cellular, gravity-type structure without penetration of the piles into the bottom material.

913 Floating Breakwaters:
913.1 Floating breakwaters represent an alternative solution to protect an area from wave attack, compared to conventional fixed breakwaters. It can be effective in coastal areas with mild wave environment conditions. Therefore, they have been increasingly used aiming at protecting small craft harbours or marinas or, less frequently, the shoreline, aiming at erosion control. Some of the conditions that favour floating breakwaters are:
• Poor foundation: Floating breakwaters might be a proper solution where poor foundations possibilities prohibit the application of bottom supported breakwaters.
• Deep water: In water depths in excess of 6 m, bottom connected breakwaters are often more expensive than floating breakwaters.
• Water quality: Floating breakwaters present a minimum interference with water circulation and fish migration.
• Ice problems: Floating breakwaters can be removed and towed to protected areas if ice formation is a problem. They may be suitable for areas where summer anchorage or moorage is required.
• Visual impact: Floating breakwaters have a low profile and present a minimum intrusion on the horizon, particularly for areas with high tide ranges.
• Breakwater layout: Floating breakwaters can usually be rearranged into a new layout with minimum effort.

914 Selection of Preferable Type of Breakwater:
914.1 The comparison of rubble mound and composite wall breakwaters are shown in the following table:
Advantages Disadvantages
Sloped Rubble Mound 1. Suitable for irregular bottom
2. Suitable for weak soil (disbursed load)
3. Progressive damage
4. Low toe scour
5. Simpler construction
6. Simpler maintenance 1. Required material increases rapidly with increased water depth
2. High maintenance cost
3. Large base cuts into basin size
Wall Type Vertical 1. Material savings (stone required)
2. Easy to maintain (day-to-day)
3. Control water depth clearly defined 1. Requires firm soil
2. High construction requirements
3. Repair difficult
Low mound 1. Suitable for deeper water with less firm soil
2. More economic/ flexible design 1. Complicated construction
2. More difficult repair
High mound 1. Suitable for deeper water with less firm soil 1. More complicated construction
2. More susceptible to breaking waves

914.2 The Wall Type breakwater requires a dry dock within which the caissons can be manufactured and also requires calm sea conditions during placing of the units. Hence the disadvantages overweigh advantages in the case of composite wall breakwaters.
914.3 All breakwaters eliminate wave action and thus prevent the free flow of sand along the coast and starve the downstream beaches. Floating breakwaters do not have the negative effect on sand movement, but cannot withstand extensive wave action and thus are impractical with present construction methods in many areas.

914.4 Compared to the alternatives described above, the rubble-mound breakwater involves a relatively straight forward construction process. The combination of ease of construction and readily available construction materials, in the form of natural rock, makes the rubble-mound breakwater the preferred option.

915 Armour Unit:
915.1 Large quarried stone or specially shaped concrete block used as primary protection against wave action. Breakwaters armour units can be either classified by their shape or by the placement pattern like random or uniform placement, furthermore blocks can be classified by the risk of progressive failure as:

915.2 Compact blocks: The stability mainly due to the own weight, the average hydraulic stability is low, however the structural stability high and variation in hydraulic stability relatively low, the armour layer can be considered as a parallel system with low risk of progressive failure
915.3 Slender blocks: The stability mainly due to the interlocking, the average hydraulic stability is large, however the structural stability low and variation in hydraulic stability relatively large, the armour layer can be considered as a series system with low risk of progressive failure.

916 Selection of Armour Blocks
916.1 Armour Blocks should be selected considering the availability of large quarried stones. Generally artificial blocks are more expensive over the quarry stones used as armour. But, concrete armour units are necessitated in cases where the availability of large size quarry stones is restricted either due to environmental or political (explosive license) or other reasons. Also in aggressive wave climate and in deeper zones, artificial blocks are preferred.

917 Design of armour units
917.1 The design of the breakwaters is carried out using the procedure recommended by US Army Corps of Engineers. This design procedure is discussed in the Shore Protection Manual (1984) / Coastal Engineering Manual (2006).
917.2 Design wave height considerations: In shallow water the most severe wave condition for design of any part of a rubble-mound structure is usually the combination of predicted water depth and extreme incident wave height and period that produces waves which would break directly on the structure. Expert advice should always be sought before embarking on the design of a breakwater cross-section. Considerable experience is required when designing breakwaters.

918 Rubble Mound Breakwater Design – Steps
918.1 Specify the design condition
1. Water depth, d
2. Time period of waves, T
3. Maximum wave height H,
4. Breaking wave height, H/d = 0.78,
5. L0 = 1.56 T2 or
6. d/L0
7. Find H/H0′ from SPM wave table and find H0′
8. Find Ru/H0′ and Ru

911.2 Find Crest Elevation
Minimum = (d+ Ru)
Assume free board = 1 m
Core level = MHWL + 60cm

911.3 Armour Unit Design
Find the density of the armour unit material, for granite quarry stones, a = 2.65 t/m3
Structure slope not less than 1:2

911.4 Design of Primary Layer
The weight of armour stones to be used for the construction of breakwaters is calculated using Hudson’s formula,
W =
Where, Wr = unit weight of armour unit = 2.65 t/ m3
Hd = design wave height = 2 m
Sr = specific gravity of armour unit, relative to water at the structure
= Wr/Ww
Ww = unit weight of water = 1.03 t/ m3
Wr/Ww = 2.65/1.03 = 2.57
Kd = 2, for structure trunk
W =

911.5 Armour Thickness (t) – Primary Layer:
 n = 2 (the thickness of armour layer) for random placed armour units and minor overtopping
K = layer thickness coefficient = 1.02 (for quarry stone)
P = porosity percentage = 38 % (for rough quarry stone)
 Thickness, t = n k

911.6 Crest width
B = n k
N = 3, minimum width should be equal to that of 3 quarry stone or the width of the truck carrying the stones + 2m.

911.7 Base width = Crest Width + Slope width on either sides for each water depth.

911.8 Number of armour unit per surface area

911.9 Gradation of primary layer = 0.75 W to 1.25 W

911.10 Design of Secondary Layer
Secondary stone size = W/10 to W/15

911.11 Thickness (t) – Secondary Layer:
 Minimum two stone thick (n = 2)
 Thickness, t = n k

911.12 Design of Core
 Minimum two stone thick (n = 2)
 Under layer unit weight = to of armour

911.13 Toe Design
Size of stone
W/5 to W/10 = 2/5 to 2/10 = 0.2 to 0.4 t
Toe layer Thickness (t) = n k = 2 x 1.1 x
Toe layer width (B) = n k = 3 x 1.1 x

911.14 Lee Armour
Slope not less than 1:1.5
Size – W to W/3

911.15 Bedding Layer
Thickness of bedding layer = 0.6 m
Offset min 3m from toe

911.16 The design of Breakwater Sections may be given as a table (an example is shown below) for each 1m depth increments:

Breakwater Section for Water Depth Xm from CD
T 8sec
H 3m
d 1 m
dw = d + MHWS
H/d 0.78
H 1 m
Design Wave Height 1 m lowest of H value
L0 99.84
d/L0 0.010016
H/H0′ 1.061 from SPM wave table
H0′ 1
Ru/H0′ 1
Ru 1m
Crest Elevation, d 1
Ru 1
Tidal Level 1.3 m
Crest Level 2.3 m
Total Depth 3.3 m
Armour Unit Design
W Weight of armour unit
Wr 2.65
H 1
KD 2 spm suggested Kd values
Sr 2.57
cotα 2
w 1 t
Thickness of Primary Layer (n) 2
KΔ 1.02
t 2
Crest Width , B 3 m
Base Width 14.55
No. of Armour Unit per Surface Area, p 0.38
Na/A 2.42 units/m2
Gradation of Primary Layer 0.75 to 1.25 t
Secondary Stone Size 0.1 to 0.067 t
Thickness of Secondary Layer, t 0.7 m
Core Stone Size 5 to 0.167 kg
Bedding Layer Thickness 0.6 m
Toe Size 0.2 to 0.1 t
Toe Layer Thickness, t 0.9 m
Toe Layer Width, B 1.3 m
Lee Armour Size 1 to 0.33 m

919 Concrete Armour Design – Steps
919.1 The general design procedure followed for stone armour units can be followed for the design of concrete armour units, with the changes in Kd Values to be used in the equations, depending on the shape of unit.

920 Flume Studies
920.1 After the breakwater sections are designed, the same may be subjected to Flume Studies, which are physical modeling studies, for fine tuning the design.
920.2 More on Flume Studies in Section 13 of this manual

921 Geotechnical Studies
921.1 Proper geo-technical evaluation of the three dimensional soil profiles along the direction of the breakwaters may be carried out for the static load of the adopted section as well as the cyclic loading induced from wave action on the mass. This will provide information on slip failures, consolidation failures under cyclic wave induced loads etc. The anticipated immediate settlement of breakwaters may be assessed and used in the quantity calculations for the materials.

922 Hydrological Studies
922.1 Hydrological studies on scour depth, Filter materials and other properties may be carried out for the breakwater section proposed to be adopted.

923 Permissible Damages
923.1 Breakwaters are considered to be flexible structures, designed using empirical formulae. Damages to the structure may occur due to the dislocation of stones resulting from wave attacks and dissipation of wave energy, settlement of subgrade due to consolidation, scouring of soil beneath the foundation levels etc.

923.2 It is highly expensive to design an overly stable breakwater which will sustain zero damages, compared to periodic replenishment and rectification of the sections of a normal breakwater, where damages have happened.

923.3 Hence while designing the breakwater, the section to be optimized by conducting flume studies taking in to account the capital cost and the periodic maintenance cost.

924 Adoption of New Technologies for Breakwater Construction (Geo-tubes etc.)
924.1 As the construction of breakwaters using blasted quarry rubble causes environmental impacts and also involves a lot of controls and law and order matters such as heavy blasting using explosives, engineers should be open to the new technologies that are emerging in the breakwater construction field such as Geo-Container systems etc. As these are not time tested, care should be taken to ensure the technologies are executed as a pilot project before major construction works are carried out using new technologies. Some design criteria are listed below for geo tubes made with synthetic materials:
• One of the primary requirements for an efficient submerged tube cross-section design is to define the crest high, in relation to the still water level (SWL) for all the tide ranges, since this will govern the wave breaking mechanism that controls wave energy reduction.
• Stresses on geosynthetics are very sensitive to the slurry pumping pressure when the tubes are filled. This pressure governs the criteria design for defining the estimated force of the required geosynthetics, working under load conditions.
• Slurry pumping pressure does not have a significant influence on the final sectional area of the tubes.
• The apparent opening size of the geotextile is conditioned by sediment diameter D50.
• Inlets separations are defined in terms also of D50. The larger sediment diameter D50, the closer the inlets are.
• The ultimate strength of required geosynthetics must consider (Leshchinsky 1996), reduction factors for installation damage, chemical and biological degradation, treachery creep, and seam strength:

925 Geotechnical Stability – Improving Submerged Subsoil Soil Conditions
925.1 One of the major geotechnical problems in the construction of breakwaters is the presence of clayey loose subsoil in the seabed. The possibility of improving the bearing capacity of the seabed and preventing excessive settlement of breakwaters from consolidation and slippage may be investigated in such cases. Proper studies may be done on the three dimensional soul profile of the region and the effects of providing stone/sand columns and other soil improvement techniques may be assessed. The cost and effort may be compared with the anticipated settlement and additional requirement of rubble for replenishment.

Construction methods
Method of dumping, protecting the ongoing work,

Initial soundings, working drawings and quantity calculation

Deviation in quantity
Sinkage & slippage
Assessment of sinkage
short term sinkage
Shear faiure

Long term
Dislocation of stones

During onstruction

Documentation of damages

Reports to higher authorities

Long term damages
Natural calamities
Stabilisation period
Permissible damages in design
Contractors liability & guarantee period
Failure analysis
Structural failure
Size of stones
Layer thickness
Side slopes
Wave over topping
Wave climate
Permissible damages as per design

Stone properties
Crushing strength
Abrasive resistance
Stone weight
Stone size and shape
Tolerances in weight, size and shape

Profile of Break water
Working cross sectors
Layer thickness (Two layer placement)
Placing of berms
Placing of filter layer
Under water inspection of works
construction procedure
Prototype observations
Frequency of sampling
Measurements and documentation
Method of measurement
Way bills
Measurement cards
Ensuring proper weight/size/shape of stones
Random testing of loads

Artificial block Armour stones
Concrete mix
Strength test (IS Code)

Type of vessels
Calculation of length width top level etc. including statistical methods of projection of growth.
Soil characteristics
Type of berth/Pile &Slab/Steel sheet pile/Diaphragm wall etc.
Forces on a wharf. Design parameters.
Handling equipments, vessel size and top width of wharf.
Vessel size Tidal levels and top level of wharf.
Revetment / reclamation bund/filter layer etc.
Steel/concrete/reinforcement, precautions for corrosion prevention
Traffic management system
IS Codes

Wharf – Layout and Types
While locating the wharfs in the layout of the harbour, the tranquility conditions inside the basin according to the model study reports shall be taken in to account. There are mainly two types of wharfs – Quays and Jetties can be provided in the harbours. For all uses that are required to have a land connection such as landing of catches, out-fitting etc, quays are required.
In a fishing harbour, the landing activities should be separated from the outfitting and bunkering activities completely, to prevent contamination of fish from oil and other foreign matter.
For berthing of vessels, harbour of refuge etc, finger jetties can be constructed. Also, with the new requirements to cater to vessels of multiple sizes and heights, multi-level wharfs may also be thought of. Non contaminating activities such as ice leading and outfitting can also be carried out from the upper floors of the wharf.
Wharf can be constructed as Pile and Slab construction, RCC diaphragm wall, Anchored Steel Sheet Pile walls, concrete block work, RCC caissons, RCC Floating Jetties etc.

Wharf – Length of Wharf Required for Landing, Outfitting, Repair and Berthing
Before embarking on the design of the wharf length, proper investigations on the number and types of vessels using the harbour and the future prospects of fleets may be done and the design fleet size assessed. Currently, mechanized vessels of two or three length groups (9m, 12-16m and 24m or longer), Inboard Engine MFVs and Outboard Engine FRPs form the type of vessels in the design fleet.

The wharf length requirements for each type of vessel is calculated separately depending up on the landing / berthing / outfitting activities of the vessels.

The number of vessels in the fleet that would be anticipated to arrive at peak time will also vary between different types of vessels. Also, these factors may change with time as new technologies and new types of vessels are introduced. It is advisable to conduct a survey and find out these factors at each site, but a general guideline for the particulars of different vessels are given below:

Landing Length Calculation
Activity OBM Mechanised Inboard
Number of boats operating per day 90% of fleet size 1/5 (5day trip) of (90% of fleet size) Add the carrier vessels to the design fleet size of OBMs
Number of boats arriving in peak hour 40% of the above value 110% of above value
Peak Landing per boat 66kg 1136kg
Time required for unloading Assume 4.5 tons per hour
Time required for docking and undocking About 4minutes
Find Number of vessels that can unload their catch per hour 60min/ total of time above
Find number of berths required Number of boats arriving in an hour / Find Number of vessels that can unload their catch per hour
Find length of wharf Number of berths X (Length of OBM + 1m)

Outfitting Length Calculation
Activity OBM Mechanised Inboard
Number of boats requiring outfitting per day 90% of fleet size 1/5 (5day trip) of (90% of fleet size) 90% of fleet size
Time required for outfitting Observe at field and determine or assume 10 min

No of berths required for outfitting in 8 hours Number of boats requiring outfitting X Time Required / 8×60
Outfitting Length Required Above Value x Length of boat + 1m

Berthing Length Calculation
Activity OBM Mechanised Inboard
Number of boats expected to be berthed during the same night Nn(dr/C+d1/C)
Nn=Total number of boats excluding the sick ones
C= Number of days in a full fishing operation cycle
dr= Number of rest days in a full fishing operation cycle
d1= Number of days landing in a full fishing operation cycle
Berthing to be provided Decide from field conditions or / Assume 60% of the above value
No of berths required Decide from field conditions or Assume 4 vessels abreast
Total Berthing Length Required Deduct the Landing and Outfitting lengths from [Above Value x (Length of boat + 1m)]

Repair Length Calculation
Activity OBM Mechanised Inboard
No of boats requiring repairs Assume 4% of boats will require repair at one time
Repair Length Required Number of boats requiring repair X (Length of boat + 1m)

Design Wharf – Width of Wharf
Width Required for Landing: There should be sufficient space between the auction hall and the vessel berthed for landing operations on the wharf. The width of wharf shall be arrived by considering the crowding on the wharf, stacking the unloaded fish crates, human or mechanical effort (trolley, forklifts, conveyor etc) to move the landed catch to the auction area. The minimum width of wharf for landing of fish catch shall be 8m.
Width Required for Out-fitting: The width of wharf for out-fitting shall be arrived by considering the usage of equipment such as ice loader to the boats, ice transportation facilities, diesel outlet machines etc.
Width Required for Berthing and other uses: The width of wharf for out-fitting shall be arrived by considering the usage of equipment such as ice loader to the boats, ice transportation facilities, diesel outlet machines etc.

Design of Wharf – Fixing Top Level of Wharf
The top level of wharf shall be fixed considering the vessel size and the landing operation and the tidal variation at the region. Minimum 30cm freeboard should be given above the MHHW and care should be taken that smaller vessels should not go under the wharf during low tides.

Design of Wharf – Structural Design – Parameters
Grade of concrete – M30, Design mix for all RCC structures
Steel HYSD bar as per IS: 1786-Fe 415
IRC Class B loading and Superimposed Load of 1 t/ m2
Mooring Load
Berthing load
The substructure of the quay is proposed to be of bored piles taken up to firm strata. The superstructure is envisaged to be constructed by cast-in-situ method and it consists of a frame of main beams, cross beams and slab. The bored piles of the jetty are of 700 mm dia and each. The founding level of the bored piles should be taken to at least–15 m CD. The front face of quay is provided with fenders to prevent the wharf face and vessels getting damaged during operation. Bollards/Mooring Rings are provided on top of the wharf for tying the MFVs.

Design of Wharf – Structural Design – Steps
Determine dead load of the deck slab, assume initial trial thickness 25cm
Determine dead load of main beam, assume initial trial size 300x500mm c/s
Determine dead load of cross beam, assume initial trial size 230x400mm c/s
Find DL and LL for Long Span:
Dead load/ Live load due to slab = wlx/6 [3 – (lx/ly)2] [clause 23.5 SP 24 -1983]
Live load = 1 t/m2
Find DL and LL for Short Span:
D.L due to slab = wlx/3 = (5 x 0.5) / 3 = say, 1 t/m
Total L.L = 2 t/m
Live Load Calculation
Vertical Live Load (IS 4651 PART 3)
Uniform V.L.L on the deck = 1 T/m2
Wheel load = 6.8 T
Horizontal Live Load
Bollard Pull or Mooring Load.
F = [CW x AW x PZ]
PZ = 0.6 VZ2
VZ = Vb x K1 x K2 x K3
Basic wind speed, Vb = 39 m/s
K1 = 1, K2 = 1.05, K3 = 1
VZ = 39 x 1 x 1.05 x 1 = 40.95 m/s
PZ = 0.6 x 40.952 = 102.59 kg/m2
AW = 1.175 x Lp(Dm-Dl)
Lp = 21 m
Dm = 3.5 m
Dl = 1.5m
F = 1.5 x 49.35 x 102.59 = 7.6 T (say, 8 T)
No. of bents that take the mooring load = from pile spacing
Mooring load per bent = 8 / 4 = 2 T
Berthing Force (IS 4651 Part 3 Clause 5.2)
Designed for bigger vessel of size = 23 m length

E = WD x V2 x CM x CE x CS
WD = 113T
V = 0.45 m/s
CM = 1 + (2D/B)
D = 2.7 m, B = 5.7 m
CM = 1 + (2×2.7/5.7) = 1.947 (say, 2)
CE = [1+(l/r)2sin2Ө] / [1+(l/r2)]
Ө = 20 deg
l/r = 1
CE = [1+(1)2sin220] / [1+(12)] = 0.56
Cs = 0.9
E = [113 x 0.452 x 2 x 0.56 x 0.9] / [2 x 9.81]
= 1.1756 T-m
Spacing of fender = [0.3 x L] = 0.3 x 8 = 2.4 (say, 3 m)
Force of impact = [E / Allowable deflection] = (1.1756 /.0254) = 46.28 T
If the force is shared by 4, bents force per bent = (46.28 / 4) = 11.57 T
Fender spacing = [0.3 x L] = 0.3 x 8 = 2.4 (say, 2.5 m) (IS 4651 PART 4 Clause 9)
Design of Deck Slab and Beams
Carry out the RCC structural design for these elements

Horizontal live load:
Mooring load t
Berthing force t
Moment: Mz t-m and My t-m
Check against the design carried our for the corss beams on the backside of the structure

Auction Hall
HACCP norms
Min. width/Min. height
Drainage facilities
Raised auction plat form
Conveyors/Handling system
Fresh water supply
Washing & Cleaning
Side Covering
Structural requirements/steel trusses/prevention of corrosion /spacing of columns.
Auctioning system
Facilities for auction agents
Packing & moving
Ice handling
Crates and containers

The purpose of the Auction Hall is to facilitate hygienic fish handling, better sanitation and for introducing a centralized fish marketing facility with a transparent auction system for the benefit of fishing boat operators to get a fair price for their fish produce. This centre is planned and designed to provide good scope for ensuring fish quality, collection of statistics on quantum of fish being landed at the harbor, monitoring of fishery resources etc.

The construction of building would be as per the IS standard specifications keeping in mind the MPEDA guidelines and other International Euro norms and HACCP practices pertaining to hygienic fish handling. The proposed Auction Hall is a sheltered building covered from all sides meant for cleaning, sorting, weighing, auctioning, icing, packing and loading of the fresh fish landed by the boats.

This building would be the nerve-centre of the fishery harbor where the fresh fish landed from boats is cleaned, sorted by species and size-wise weighed, auctioned, iced, packed and distributed to the local, national and international markets. During the working hours, only the employees, fish buyers, officially recognized fish traders and workers would have access to the fish handling and auction hall. To avoid the fresh fish being exposed to sun heat and to avoid long haulage of fish, the fish auction hall is located immediately behind and close to the landing quay. The structure is proposed to be with RCC roof erected over RCC pillars. The floor level is kept at 20 cm above the quay top in order to facilitate easy drainage. Facilities are provided inside the auction hall for washing and hygienic handling of fish. The floor of the building is designed as a RCC slab, in continuation of the quay wall to avoid sinking of floor beneath the quay wall due to the scouring of sand below the floor.
The width of the Auction Hall is to facilitate essential activities taking place in the hall such as washing, sorting, weighing, displaying, icing and packing of fish.

Covered loading area
Spacing of columns
2. Height above GL
3. Roofing
4. Flooring

Parking area/Internal roads
Type of vessels & parking
Foot paths
Drain/storm water/Waste water
Service ducts
Signage and marking.

Gear Sheds
Between the rest days of the fishing voyages of the fishing season and during non-fishing season, some fishing vessel operators for security reasons may prefer to keep their fishing gear in the fish gear sheds instead of keeping in the fishing vessels. As such, fishing gear storage cabins with locking arrangements are required to be provided in a fishery harbor. For this purpose, a limited number of fishing gear storage sheds are proposed in two blocks in the fishery harbor complex and is shown in harbor layout. The two sheds are located central to the idle-berthing quay so that the fishing boat operators need not have to carry the heavy gears and tackles for a long distance and can keep the fishing gear in safe custody in the gear sheds under lock. Gear shed of plinth area of 177.39 sq.m of size 24.3 m X 7.3 m is provided in the fishery harbor complex.

Locker rooms

Net mending sheds

Crates and reefers cleaning area

Landing, Berthing & out fishing jetties

Finger Piers

Food safety laboratory

Security systems

Compound wall

Outer compound wall

Inner wall to restrict entry to the fish handling area.

Gate and Gate house

Repair facilities



Ship lifts

Navigations aids

Water supply

Low level Berths for Artisans grafts


1. Shops
2. Toilets
3. Canteen
4. Auction agent’s office
5. Dormitory for workers
6. Rest room
7. Emergency Medical aid
8. Sea rescue facilities
9. Information and weather warning system
10. Green belt and landscapes.
11. Recreational spaces.

Shore Protection works

1. Sea wall
2. Groynes
3. Off shore break water
4. Organic shore protection works-Materials and construction

Shore protection manual, IS Codes & Other relevant codes
Steel reinforcement
Structural steel
Mix design Min. & Max. cement content, water quality, prevention of corrosion


Types of berths
Types of cargo
Handling equipments
Contain berths
Bulk cargo
Bollards / Fenders
Types of construction & Design
Diaphragm wall
Anchored sheet pile
Relieving platform
Concrete block work
Floating jetties
Dolphins and finger piers
Off shore jetties

Draft & vessel size
Construction and Quality Control
Design drawings and detailing
Hydrographic & topography sketchers with contain
Fixing up General ground levels and …reference
Preparation of detailed changes of components
Reinforcement detailing
Setting out
Structural steel drawings

Wharves and jetties

IS Codes
Precautions while concreting to prevent corrosion
Concrete grade
W/C ratio
Water quality
Exposed portion
Sampling criteria
Detailed drawings

19. Check lists for works

Quality Control
915 HACCP Norms
911.1 The system is based on the recognition that microbiological hazards exist at various points, but measures can be taken to control these hazards. The anticipation of hazards and the identification of control points are therefore key elements of HACCP. The system offers a rational and logical approach to control food hazards and avoid the many weaknesses inherent in the inspectional approach.
911.2 Harbour designs should be such that HACCP Norms and monitoring controls can be easily achieved and effected.

911.3 Once established, the main effort of the quality assurance programme will be directed towards the Critical Control Points (CCPs) and away from endless final product testing. This will assure a higher degree of safety and at less cost.

911.4 The main elements of the HACCP system are:
1. • Identify potential hazards. Assess the risk of occurrence.
2. • Determine the Critical Control Points (CCPs)
3. • Establish criteria to be met to ensure that each CCP is under control.
4. • Establish a monitoring system.
5. • Establish corrective action when CCP is not under control.
6. • Establish procedures for verification.
7. • Establish documentation and record-keeping.

911.4.1 Identification of potential hazards: Hazards have been defined as the unacceptable contamination, growth or survival of bacteria in food that may affect food safety or quality (spoilage) or the unacceptable production or persistence in foods of substances such as toxins, enzymes or products of microbial metabolism. In other words a hazard is a biological, chemical or physical property that may cause food to be unsafe for consumption. For inclusion in the list, hazards must be of such a nature that their elimination or reduction to acceptable levels is essential for the production of safe food.

911.4.2 Hazard analysis requires two essential ingredients. The first is the appreciation of the pathogenic organisms that could harm the consumer or cause spoilage. The second is a detailed understanding of how these hazards could arise. In order to be meaningful, hazard analysis must be quantitative. This requires an assessment of both severity and risk. Severity refers to the serious consequences when a hazard occurs, while risk is an estimate of the likelihood of a hazard occurring. It is only the risk that can be controlled.

911.4.3 Determine the CCPs: A CCP is a location, procedure or processing step at which hazards can be controlled. CCP1 is that which will ensure full control of a hazard and CCP2 is that which will minimize but not assure full control. Within the context of HACCP, the meaning of “control” at a CCP means to minimize or prevent the risk of one or more hazards by taking specific preventive measures. If an identified hazard has no preventive measure at a certain step then no CCP exists at that step.

911.4.4 Establish criteria, target levels and tolerances for each CCP: To be effective, a detailed description of all CCPs is necessary. This includes determination of criteria and specified limits or characteristics of a physical, chemical or biological nature which ensure that a product is safe and of acceptable quality.

911.4.5 Establish a monitoring system for each CCP: The monitoring should be able to detect deviations from specifications or criteria for corrective action to be taken. When it is not possible to monitor a critical limit on a continuous basis, it is necessary to establish a monitoring interval that will be reliable enough to indicate whether the hazard is under control. Periodic verification of sanitation controls and random microbiological tests of fish can be very valuable as means of establishing and verifying the effectiveness of control at CCPs.

911.4.6 Corrective actions: The system must allow for corrective action to be taken immediately when monitoring results indicate that a particular CCP is not under control. Action must be taken before the deviation leads to a safety hazard.

911.4.7 Verification and documentation: Verification is the use of supplementary information to check whether the HACCP system is working. Procedures may include review of CCP records, review of deviations, random sample collection and analysis. Inspections should be conducted routinely or unannounced, when the fish originating from the harbour complex is implicated as a vehicle of food-borne disease, or when requested on a consultative basis.

911.5 HACCP system for fresh and frozen fish products
911.5.1 The hazard analysis for these products is fairly straightforward and uncomplicated. The live animals are caught in the sea, handled and processed without any use of additives or chemical preservatives and finally distributed with icing or freezing as the only means of preservation. Contamination with pathogenic bacteria from the human/animal reservoir can occur when the landing place is unhygienic or when the fish are washed with contaminated water. Most fish and crustaceans are cooked before eating although a few countries have a tradition of eating raw fish. Cooking the product before consumption usually eliminates the risk from contamination with pathogenic bacteria. However, an indirect hazard exists if contaminated products are polluting the working areas and thereby transporting the pathogens to products which are not cooked before eating (cross contamination). Cooking will not, however, eliminate the growth of heat-stable toxins (histamine).
911.5.2 Time and temperature conditions at all steps from capture of fish to distribution constitute a CCP1 in preventing growth of pathogenic bacteria and spoilage bacteria. Below 1°C, no growth of pathogenic bacteria takes place. Therefore a maximum time at temperatures over 5°C must be specified in the criteria for this CCP. Exposure for only a few hours of fatty fish to the sun, air and ambient temperature during fish handling on the vessel or at the harbour is sufficient to introduce severe quality loss and cause early spoilage.

911.5.3 A sensory assessment (appearance, odour) of the fish when landed is a CCP2 for ensuring that until this point the material has been under control, and that spoiled fish or shrimp and potential toxic species can be discarded.

911.5.4 Personal hygiene as well as fishery harbour sanitation are CCPs preventing contamination of products with micro-organisms and filth. The seriousness of the hazard varies, depending on the intended end-use of the product (cooking or no cooking). Occasionally a microbiological check of the cleanliness of working surfaces can be made. This control procedure must be carried out on a weekly basis. When the routines are well established, microbiological control of cleanliness can be carried out monthly.

911.5.5 Water quality is a CCP1 in preventing contamination from this source. Where in-plant chlorination is used, chlorine levels must be measured and recorded. Chlorine levels should be measured daily.

911.6 Application of HACCP system in fishery harbours
911.6.1 Harbours vary a great deal in size and the quantities of fish they handle. Accordingly the hygienic requirements and the design of fish handling areas may vary considerably. Quite obviously the requirements of a small harbour or landing place where fish is landed, repacked in ice and distributed to the local market are different from the hygienic requirements of a large complex which includes fish processing of a variety of seafood and cold storage. In most fishery harbours where there is no seafood processing other than handling of fresh fish, all that is needed may be temperature and water quality controls besides encouraging a cleanliness ethic.

911.7 Checklist for ensuring seafood safety
1. Landed fish should not be exposed to the sun and should be iced.
2. Inspect fish for appearance and odour and reject fish of unacceptable quality.
3. Periodically perform bacteriological tests on representative samples.
4. Follow a cleaning schedule for all work areas and surfaces, using water containing 5 to 10 ppm of free chlorine.
5. Remove all fish slime and blood by hosing down with chlorinated water. At the end of the day, rinse all surfaces with clean water having 5 ppm of chlorine.
6. Apply personal hygiene rules strictly to prevent contamination of fish. Smoking and spitting in work areas should not be permitted. Hands must be washed with bactericidal soap prior to handling fish and after a visit to the toilet.
7. Check that water supply and treatment systems are in order. Water and ice samples should be analysed as per testing schedule by ISO certified laboratories for levels of chemical and bacteriological contamination and potability certificates obtained.
8. The harbour should be free from litter and other wastes.
9. Check to ensure that all drainage systems are in good working order.
10. The harbour should be free of animals, rodents and pests.
11. Ensure that there are no bird nests in the fish handling area.
12. Check that wastes are being disposed of sanitarily.
13. Check cold storage equipment to ensure that the right temperature is being maintained.
14. Ensure that all precaution and warning signs are readable.

911.8 Advantages of the HACCP system
911.8.1 The HACCP system is an ideal tool when resources are scarce. The general principle of the HACCP concept is to direct energy and resources towards areas where they are necessary and most useful. The main advantages can be summarized as follows:
1. Control is proactive in that remedial action can be taken before a problem occurs.
2. Control is through features that are easy to monitor such as time, temperature and appearance.
3. Control is cheap in comparison with detailed chemical and microbiological analysis.
4. The operation is controlled by persons directly involved with the fish product.
5. It can be used to predict potential hazards.


0 #2 Santhosh 2015-10-15 06:53
+1 #1 Santhosh 2015-10-14 10:59
nt and maintenance of commissioned fishery harbours and fish landing centres were also vested with this department. An amount of Rs. 5,10,58,197/- has been collected by way of rev

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